In a classical plasma the momentum distribution, n(k), decays exponentially, for large k, and the same is observed for an ideal Fermi gas. However, when quantum and correlation effects are relevant simultaneously, an algebraic decay, n_∞(k)∼k^-8 has been predicted. This is of relevance for cross sections and threshold processes in dense plasmas that depend on the number of energetic particles. Here we present extensive ab initio results for the momentum distribution of the nonideal uniform electron gas at warm dense matter conditions. Our results are based on first principle fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations and clearly confirm the k^-8 asymptotic. This asymptotic behavior is directly linked to short-range correlations which are analyzed via the on-top pair distribution function (on-top PDF), i.e., the PDF of electrons with opposite spin. We present extensive results for the density and temperature dependence of the on-top PDF and for the momentum distribution in the entire momentum range.We develop a based on a sparse random graph to account for the interplay between geometric frustration and disorder in cluster magnetism. Our theory allows introduction of the cluster network connectivity as a controllable parameter. Two types of inner cluster geometry are considered triangular and tetrahedral. The theory was developed for general, nonuniform intracluster interactions, but in the present paper the results presented correspond to uniform, antiferromagnetic (AF) intraclusters interaction J_0/J. The clusters are represented by nodes on a finite connectivity random graph, and the intercluster interactions are randomly Gaussian distributed. The graph realizations are treated in replica theory using the formalism of order parameter functions, which allows one to calculate the distribution of local fields and, as a consequence, the relevant observable. In the case of triangular cluster geometry, there is the onset of a classical spin liquid state at a temperature T^*/J and then, a cluster spin glass (CSG) phase at a temperature T_/J. The CSG ground state is robust even for very weak disorder or large negative J_0/J. These results does not depend on the network connectivity. Nevertheless, variations in the connectivity strongly affect the level of frustration f_p=-Θ_CW/T_f for large J_0/J. In contrast, for the nonfrustrated tetrahedral cluster geometry, the CSG ground state is suppressed for weak disorder or large negative J_0/J. The CSG boundary phase presents a reentrance which is dependent on the network connectivity.Kapitza resistance in the chain models with internal defects is considered. For the case of the linear chain, the exact analytic solution for the boundary resistance is derived for arbitrary linear time-independent conservative inclusion or defect. A simple case of isolated isotopic defects is explored in more detail. Contrary to the bulk conductivity in the linear chain, the Kapitza resistance is finite. However, the universal thermodynamic limit does not exist in this case. In other terms, the exact value of the resistance is not uniquely defined, and depends on the way of approaching the infinite lengths of the chain fragments. By this reason, and also due to the explicit dependence on the parameters of the thermostats, the resistance cannot be considered as a local property of the defect. Asymptotic scaling behavior of the heat flux in the case of very heavy defect is explored and compared to the nonlinear counterparts; similarities in the scaling behavior are revealed. For the lightweight isotopic defect in the linear chain, one encounters a typical dip of the temperature profile, related to weak excitation of the localized mode in the attenuation zone. If the nonlinear interactions are included, this dip can still appear at a relatively short timescale, with subsequent elimination due to the nonlinear interactions. This observation implies that even in the nonlinear chains, the linear dynamics can predict the main features of the short-time evolution of the thermal profile if the temperature is low enough.Size dependence of energy transport and the effects of reduced dimensionality on transport coefficients are of key importance for understanding nonequilibrium properties of matter on the nanoscale. Here, we perform nonequilibrium and equilibrium simulations of heat conduction in a three-dimensional (3D) fluid with the multiparticle collision dynamics, interacting with two thermal walls. We find that the bulk 3D momentum-conserving fluid has a finite nondiverging thermal conductivity. However, for large aspect ratios of the simulation box, a crossover from 3D to one-dimensional (1D) abnormal behavior of the thermal conductivity occurs. In this case, we demonstrate a transition from normal to abnormal transport by a suitable decomposition of the energy current. These results not only provide a direct verification of Fourier's law, but also further confirm the validity of existing theories for 3D fluids. Moreover, they indicate that abnormal heat transport persists also for almost 1D fluids over a large range of sizes.We extend the formulation of the discrete element method, which is typically used to simulate granular media, to describe arbitrarily large numbers of spatial dimensions and the collisions of frictional hyperspheres in these simulations. These higher dimensional simulations require complex visualization techniques, which are also developed here. Under uniaxial compression, we find that the stiffness of a granular medium is independent of the dimension for dimensions greater than one. In the dense flow regime, we show that the compressibility and frictional properties of higher dimensional granular materials can be described by a common rheology, with the main distinction between dimensions being the packing fraction. Results from these simulations extend our understanding of the effects of dimensionality on the behavior of granular materials, and on elastic and frictional properties in higher dimensions.The effects of bound electron screening in warm and hot dense matter are investigated analytically and a theoretical description of screened short-range repulsion is given meanwhile. An empirical ion-ion potential including the classic charge screening and chemical bond attraction at various temperatures and densities is proposed. By solving hypernetted chain equations and comparing the obtained radial distribution function (RDF) with ab initio simulations, the proposed ion-ion potential is found to be promising over a wide range of temperatures and densities for warm dense aluminum and iron. The elastic scattering amplitude and the x-ray absorption near the edge structure of warm dense aluminum calculated from the obtained RDF are in good agreement with experiment results.Ballistic thermal rectification is of significance for the management of thermal transport at the nanoscale since the size of thermal devices shrinks down to the phonon mean free path. By using the single-particle Lorentz gas model, the ballistic thermal transport in asymmetric homojunctions is investigated. The ballistic thermal rectification of the asymmetric rectangular homojunction is enhanced by the increasing structural asymmetry. A hyperbolic tangent profile is introduced to the interface to study the effect of interface steepness on thermal transport. We find that the thermal rectification ratio increases with the decreasing interface steepness, indicating that a gradual interface is of benefit to increase the thermal rectification. Moreover, the thermal rectification of the asymmetric homojunction can be improved by either increasing the temperature gradient or decreasing the average temperature of two heat sources.When faced with an imminent risk of predation, many animals react to escape consumption. Antipredator strategies are performed by individuals acting as a group to intimidate predators and minimize the damage when attacked. We study the antipredator prey response in spatial tritrophic systems with cyclic species dominance using the rock-paper-scissors game. The impact of the antipredator behavior is local, with the predation probability reducing exponentially with the number of prey in the predator's neighborhood. In contrast to the standard Lotka-Volterra implementation of the rock-paper-scissors model, where no spiral waves appear, our outcomes show that the antipredator behavior leads to spiral patterns from random initial conditions. The results show that the predation risk decreases exponentially with the level of antipredator strength. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ki20227.html Finally, we investigate the coexistence probability and verify that antipredator behavior may jeopardize biodiversity for high mobility. Our findings may help biologists to understand ecosystems formed by species whose individuals behave strategically to resist predation.Optimization of heat engines at the microscale has applications in biological and artificial nanotechnology and stimulates theoretical research in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Here we consider noninteracting overdamped particles confined by an external harmonic potential, in contact with either a thermal reservoir or a stochastic self-propulsion force (active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model). A cyclical machine is produced by periodic variation of the parameters of the potential and of the noise. An exact mapping between the passive and the active model allows us to define the effective temperature T_eff(t), which is meaningful for the thermodynamic performance of the engine. We show that T_eff(t) is different from all other known active temperatures, typically used in static situations. The mapping allows us to optimize the active engine, regardless of the values of the persistence time or self-propulsion velocity. In particular, through linear irreversible thermodynamics (small amplitude of the cycle), we give an explicit formula for the optimal cycle period and phase delay (between the two modulated parameters, stiffness and temperature) achieving maximum power with Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. In the quasistatic limit, the formula for T_eff(t) simplifies and coincides with a recently proposed temperature for stochastic thermodynamics, bearing a compact expression for the maximum efficiency. A point, which has been overlooked in recent literature, is made about the difficulty in defining efficiency without a consistent definition of effective temperature.We present an in-depth study of the universal correlations of scattering-matrix entries required in the framework of nonstationary many-body scattering of noninteracting indistinguishable particles where the incoming states are localized wave packets. Contrary to the stationary case, the emergence of universal signatures of chaotic dynamics in dynamical observables manifests itself in the emergence of universal correlations of the scattering matrix at different energies. We use a semiclassical theory based on interfering paths, numerical wave function based simulations, and numerical averaging over random-matrix ensembles to calculate such correlations and compare with experimental measurements in microwave graphs, finding excellent agreement. Our calculations show that the universality of the correlators survives the extreme limit of few open channels relevant for electron quantum optics, albeit at the price of dealing with large-cancellation effects requiring the computation of a large class of semiclassical diagrams.

Last-modified: 2024-09-10 (火) 23:41:57